AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

One of the most popular families of stainless steel used in industry, austenitic stainless steel castings, based around the common “18-8” chromium to nickel ratio, make up the majority of the stainless alloys poured at Niagara Investment Castings. With its almost “perfect” mix of castability, weldability, and metallurgical cleanliness, any of the “300 Series” of stainless steels will make excellent investment castings.  Cast 300 series alloys are not hardenable by heat treat, and are generally always magnetic to various degrees, unlike their completely non-magnetic wrought counterparts.  A special and highly informative paper we have written on this topic can be found as a PDF file here.  Sometimes austenitic castings should be supplied in a passivated condition for optimum corrosion resistance, and we can take care of that for you as well. 

Super austenitic stainless steels, such as alloy AL-6XN and 254SMO, exhibit great resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion because of high molybdenum content (>6%) and nitrogen additions, and the higher nickel content ensures better resistance to stress-corrosion cracking versus the 300 series. The higher alloy content of super austenitic steels makes them more expensive, and many times other steels can offer similar performance at lower cost and are preferred in certain applications.  Niagara Investment Castings does also offer some of these alloys, and we encourage you to contact us for more assistance regarding super austenitic alloys. 

Specification     Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
ASTM A-743, MIL-S-81591 CF16F, IC 303 303
ASTM A-351, A-743, A744 CF20 302
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 ASME SA-351 CF3 304L
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 ASME SA-351 CF3M 316L
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 ASME SA-351 CF8 304
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 CF8C 347
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 ASME SA-351 CF8M 316
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 CG3M 317L
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 CG8M 317
ASTM A-743 CH-20 309
ASTM A-743 CK-20 310
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 CN7M ALLOY 20

HEAT RESISTANT STAINLESS STEELS

The inherent high hot strength of Ni-Cr-Fe alloys precludes them from being able to be hot worked, including forging or rolling, however they make excellent investment castings.  Alloy selection for any high temperature plus corrosion application is based on the corrosive conditions and maximum temperatures expected in these extremely harsh operating environments.  Niagara Investment Castings is pleased to offer an extensive range of heat resistant stainless steel alloys for your convenience.  

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
ASTM A-297 HD 327
ASTM A-297 HE 312
ASTM A-297 HF 308
ASTM A-297 HH 309
ASTM A-297 HI *
ASTM A-297 HK 310
ASTM A-351 HK40 310
ASTM A-297 HN 311
ASTM A-297 HP45 *
ASTM A-297 MOD HP45W *
ASTM A-297 HT 330
ASTM A-297 HU 331
ASTM A-297 MOD HUCB *
ASTM A-297 HX 335
ASTM A-297 MOD HXM *

DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS

Duplex stainless steels are unique in that they have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, the aim usually being to produce a 50/50 mix, although in commercial alloys that ratio is often altered.  Duplex stainless steels are typically called out for applications where exceptional strength and a specific corrosion resistance must co-exist in the alloy.  They have roughly twice the strength compared to austenitic stainless steels and also improved resistance to localized corrosion, particularly pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. They are characterized by high chromium (19–32%) and molybdenum (up to 5%) and lower nickel contents than austenitic stainless steels.  Niagara Investment Castings is pleased to offer a full range of duplex, as well as well next generation super-duplex alloys involving nitrogen enhancement.

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744, A-890-1A CD4MCu 25-5PH
ASTM A-890-1B CD4MCuN 25-5PH
ASTM A-890-3A CD6MN *
ASTM A-890-5A CE3MN **
ASTM A-890-6A CD3MWCuN **
ASTM A-351, A-743, A-744 CK-3MCuN **
ASTM A-351, A-743 CG6MMn NITRONIC 50
ASTM A-351, A-743 CF10SMnN NITRONIC 60

MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS

The family of martensitic stainless steels are not as corrosion-resistant as most other two classes but are extremely strong and tough, yet still highly machinable.  The family gets their name from the fact that each of the alloys contain sufficiently low enough nickel that all alloys can be hardened by heat treatment.  The metallurgical name for the structure produced from heat treatment is martensite, hence the name for this popular family of stainless steel.  Also referred to as the “400 Series” stainless steels, martensitic stainless steel contains chromium (12–14%), molybdenum (0.2–1%), nickel (less than 2%), and carbon (about 0.1–1%) which renders more hardenability but making the material more brittle. It is therefore always tempered after the hardening process of quenching, and is always magnetic.

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
ASTM A-217, A?743, A?487 CA15 410
ASTM A-743 MOD CA15F 416
ASTM A-743 CA40 420
ASTM A-743 CA40F 420 MOD
ASTM A-743, A-487 CA6NM 410 MOD
IC 440C 440C 440C
IC 440F 440F 440F
MIL-S-81591 IC 431 431

ALLOY STEELS

This family of steel consists of standard cast “Plain Carbon” steels similar to the readily available wrought “Hot rolled or Cold rolled” alloys, as well as the heavily consumed more common medium to high alloyed steels, such as 8620, 4140, and 4340.  This is just a short list of the many plain and alloyed steels we produce, so if yours is not listed, chances are we do pour it, so please just email and ask.  With a wide range of properties attainable through the various heat treatments we can provide, this family of steel is very popular for investment casting.

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
AISI 1018 1018 1018
AISI 1060 1060 1060
ASTM A-732, MIL-S-22141 1OQ, IC 4340 4340
ASTM A-732 13Q 8620
ASTM A-732 14Q 8630
ASTM A-732 1A 1020
ASTM A-732 4Q 1050
ASTM A-732 7Q 4130
ASTM A-732 8Q 4140
ASTM A-217 WC6 4118 MOD
ASTM A-217, ASME SA-217 WC9 4115 MOD
ASTM A-216, ASME SA-216 WCB 1025

PRECIPITATION HARDENED STAINLESS STEELS

A very popular family of stainless steel, precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels have corrosion resistance comparable to the austenitic grades we offer, but have the unique benefit of being able to be precipitation hardened to even higher strengths than the martensitic grades, using a low temperature “aging” process, rather than a severe quench into a liquid.  This allows precipitation hardening stainless steels to be used in corrosive applications where finished dimensions would be too compromised by a liquid quench, which makes the alloy an excellent candidate for investment casting.  With excellent foundry characteristics, the most common is CB7cu-1 alloy, the direct cast substitute for wrought 17-4 PH, and uses about 17% chromium and 4% nickel.

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
AMS 5343C, ASTM A-747, MIL-S-81591 CB7Cu-1, 5343C, IC 17-4 17-4PH
AMS 5357, ASTM A-747 CB7Cu-2, 5357 15-5PH

COBALT BASE ALLOYS

Cobalt-based alloys are almost the “perfect” fit as far as investment castings go, and have been used in demanding applications for as long as investment casting has been available as an industrial process.  Due to their inherent resistance to wear, machining of cobalt is not easily done, and therefore near-net-shape investment castings are the perfect way to produce components from these alloys. 

From the introduction of “Stellite” in the late 1920’s, cobalt alloys have contributed significantly to many industrial products and processes.  With excellent foundry properties, very high fluidity, and the ability for the alloys to be melted in non-vacuum atmospheres, the most popular varieties in the family consist of Cobalt 3, 6, and 12, which we offer. Investment cast cobalt alloys have found exceptional acceptance in the many industries we serve, especially in the harsh environment of the Alberta oil patch. 

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
AMS 5387B, 5373C COBALT 12 **
* COBALT 3 **
* COBALT 6 **

NICKEL BASE ALLOYS

Thanks to their resistance to chemical corrosion while maintaining excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, nickel based alloys have always earned an important place in industry.  The family of nickel based alloys Niagara Investment Castings offers meets a wide range of applications, and while correct to classify based on the two or three major alloying elements in the alloy, such as Ni-Cr-Mo, Ni-Mo-Fe, or Ni-Cu, many people today still call the various alloy by their original wrought names, such as Hastelloy, Inconel, and Monel.   Nickel alloys can be among some of the more challenging castings to produce, and attention to properly addressing the inherent difficulties in casting the alloy is crucial.  Niagara Investment Castings has mastered the production of these nickel-based castings, producing high quality castings for the most stringent of applications, including nuclear and extreme corrosion – high pressure pumps, valves, and other vessel related equipment.

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
ASTM A-494 CW12MW **
ASTM A-494 CW2M **
ASTM A-494 CW6M **
ASTM A-494 CW6MC **
ASTM A-494 CY-40 **
ASTM A-494 N-7M **
ASTM A-494, QQ-N-288 >M30C, MONEL A,
MONEL E
**

ALLOYED IRONS

High-alloy “white cast irons” are an important group of  materials, considered separate and distinct from that of ordinary types of cast irons, such as ductile malleable, or gray, which are typically not investment cast. In these distinctly different cast iron alloys, the alloy content is well above 4%, and are usually produced in foundries like Niagara Investment Castings, whom are specially equipped to produce other highly alloyed materials.

The high-alloy white irons are primarily used for abrasion-resistant applications and with excellent foundry properties, are readily investment cast into the parts needed in machinery for crushing, grinding, and handling of abrasive  materials.  The chromium content of high-alloy white irons also enhances their corrosion-resistant properties. The alloy content and heat treatment applied will distinguish the final properties of various grades available, and helps develop the proper balance between the resistance to abrasion, and the toughness needed to withstand repeated impact.

Specification   Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
ASTM A-532 GRADE IIC **
ASTM A-439 TYPE D-5S **
ASTM A-439 TYPE D-2 **
ASTM A-436 TYPE 2 **
ASTM A-436 TYPE 5 **

TOOL STEELS

Tool steels are characterised by high hardness, resistance to abrasion, and in many cases, resist softening at elevated temperatures.  With over 95 chemistries which typically make up the family of wrought tool steels available, the cast varieties tend to be comprised of a more limited list of the most common tool steels used today, due to the fact that tool steels are one of the lowest tonnages poured.  If you do not see your preferred tool steel listed, just get in touch with us to see if we are able to cast it, chances are we can.

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
ASTM A-597 CD-2 D-2
* CS-1 S-1
ASTM A-597 CS-7 S-7
* W1 TOOL STEEL W-1
ASTM A-597 CH13 H-13

COPPER BASE ALLOYS

Most all copper based alloys can be investment cast very successfully.  There are many, many copper based alloys in use today.  Here is a list of the most popular copper alloy brasses and bronzes which Niagara Investment Castings produces.  If your desired alloy is not on the list, please contact us to inquire if we can pour it for you, as we likely can. 

Specification Cast Grade Wrought Equivalent
CDA 83400 ALLOY 90/10 RED BRASS
CDA 92200 ALLOY A LEADED TIN BRONZE
CDA 83600 ALLOY B LEADED RED BRASS
CDA 84400 ALLOY C SEMI-RED BRASS
CDA 95400 ALBR9C ALUMINUM BRONZE
CDA 86500 MB65M MANGANESE BRONZE
CDA 90300 SAE 620 TIN BRONZE
CDA 93200 SAE 660 HIGH LEADED TIN BRONZE
CDA 87300 EVERDUR SILICON ALLOY
CDA 87200 SB12A SILICON BRONZE
CDA 87500 SB875 SILICON BRASS
CDA 95800 C95800 B271, B148 NICKEL AL-BRONZE
NOTES:
* INFORMATION IS NON EXISTING OR UNAVAILABLE.
** SOME ALLOYS ARE DESCRIBED BY TRADE NAMES OWNED BY SPECIFIC COMPANIES. PLEASE CALL IF THERE ARE ANY SPECIFIC QUESTIONS ABOUT THESE ALLOYS.